Ensuring an equitable approach to implementing the Paris Agreement will be central to achieving the most effective climate action. This will require finance commitments which prioritise the adaptation needs of the poorest and most vulnerable communities facing the greatest climate impacts, and implementation plans which use the principles of Technology Justice in technology applications.

COP22 Marrakech 7-18 November

Man stands in rubble after Nepal earthquakeLoss and damage

Achieving climate justice requires commitments from all stakeholders to both recognised, agree upon, and take action to address climate-related losses and damages, which are often faced by those least responsible for the causes of climate change. Loss and damage must be treated as a separate, complementary component to adaptation and mitigation efforts. The implementation of the Paris agreement must offer affected people the finance, technology, and capacity to give them a viable future.

Technology matters

In all areas of implementation, the application of climate technologies is crucial. But technologies are not neutral in their impacts on the environment nor people. We must ensure that not only are a range of stakeholders involved in assessing and planning the technology options available to achieve the aims of the Paris Agreement, but also that the technology needs of the poor are central to implementation planning. Adopting a 'precautionary principle' to climate technology development is vital for ensuring that risks are not exacerbated by technologies which aim to tackle the symptoms, rather than the causes, of climate change.

This means that decentralised energy systems are prioritised over grid-based systems, so that energy-poor communities can access clean energy technologies which are faster, more affordable and more environmentally friendly than grid-centric solutions, and also build resilience to rapidly bounce back from climate-induced shocks. It also means that agricultural systems must focus on sustainable practices, which support resource-poor smallholder farmers to boost productivity and incomes, build resilience to slow-onset impacts and climate-induced shocks, and minimise the emissions from the sector.

Ensuring that 'soft' technologies and technical knowledge are also considered in climate policies is fundamental for successful and sustainable project delivery and resilience-building. Without the necessary knowledge, skills and capacities to install, manage, maintain, and upgrade technologies, the climate, resilience and development benefits will be severely limited.

People planning technology implementationFocusing on co-benefits and policy coherence

While mitigation, adaptation, and loss and damage, are all distinct aspects of implementing the Paris Agreement, there is a need to prioritise measures which can achieve the greatest return on investment in meeting the needs of the poor and in abating greenhouse gas emissions. The focus should be on measures which can achieve co-benefits across these three aspects, as well as other co-benefits relevant to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

Aligning the technology components of the myriad climate policy planning processes - NAPs, NAMAs, NDCs, TNAs, TAPs - can help to achieve policy coherence for efficient and effective implementation. Integrated approaches which focus on the application of technical knowledge can support coherent climate action. In Peru, Practical Action have worked with smallholder coffee farmers to implement sustainable agroforestry practices to improve coffee production, and reduce deforestation. This not only supports farmers to contribute to Peru's emissions reduction targets, but also empowers them to better adapt to the climatic and environmental chances they are facing as a consequence of global warming.

Appropriate finance

In reaching the target of $100bn in climate financing, global donors must ensure that there is an appropriate balance of different forms of financing available for the range of adaptation and mitigation activities necessary to achieve the Paris Agreement goals. While loans may be vital forms of funding for mitigation and energy efficiency activities, they are rarely appropriate for adaptation needs, particularly those of the poorest and most vulnerable communities, where cost recovery times are also likely to be significantly longer. Grant funding should be prioritised for the 50% climate finance targeted at adaptation measures.


Team at COP22

Colin McQuistan
Policy & Practice Senior Adviser - Climate Change and DRR

Aaron Leopold
Global Energy Advocate

Chris Henderson
Policy & Practice Senior Adviser - Agriculture and Food Security

Jorge Elliot
Agroforestry Specialist - Soluciones Practicas (Practical Action Latin America)

Ranga Pallawala
CEO, Janathakshan (Practical Action Sri Lanka)

COP22 tweets

COP22 side events

  • Loss and Damage: Perspectives and Options

    Loss and Damage: Perspectives and Options

    The issue of loss and damage has gained enormous traction in international climate policy. However there is a lack promising options for moving forward. This session involving aims to provide some clarification and debate of the challenges to inform and support policy options.

    Monday 7 November
    15:00-16:20 Arabian (150)
    Contact Colin McQuistan

    Download event flyer

  • Catalyzing Private Capital for Climate change Adaptation and Mitigation (ADMIRE)

    Catalyzing Private Capital for Climate change Adaptation and Mitigation (ADMIRE)

    ADMIRE is a program directly supports 14 different projects that aim to develop commercially viable operational and financial frameworks engaging the private sector. The objective is to engage with financial institutions and attract funding from the private sector to invest to contribute to reversal of the negative climate change impacts.

    Friday 11 November
    12:30-14:00 EU Pavillion
    Contact Jorge Elliot

  • Is your city's climate policy gender proof?

    Is your city's climate policy gender proof?

    As urban settlements expand rapidly worldwide, many cities face the challenge of becoming more resilient to climate impacts and tackling their rising emissions. The event aims to explore how organisations can integrate gender considerations into activities targeting urban climate action.

    Monday 14 November
    11:00-12:30 Green Zone, Souss Room
    Contact Colin McQuistan

  • Climate Investment Funds Stakeholder Advisory Network

    Climate Investment Funds Stakeholder Advisory Network

    The event aims to improve coordination, capacities and opportunities for non-state stakeholders to engage in the growing number of increasingly complex climate finance discussions. Speakers include Catherine McKenna, Canada’s Minister of Environment and Climate Change, and Mary Robinson, former President of Ireland

    Monday 14 November
    18:30-20:30, IETA Business Hub, Area J, Blue Zone
    Contact Aaron Leopold

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Key COP22 publications


10 things to know: Gender equality and achieving climate goals

This report draws out the headline messages of a research project by Practical Action Consulting (PAC) with the Institute of Development Studies (IDS), commissioned by CDKN, to investigate the...


Beyond coal: Scaling up clean energy to fight global poverty

This paper provides evidence that a lasting solution to poverty requires the world’s wealthiest economies to renounce coal, and we can and must end extreme poverty without the precipitous expansion...


Climate Smart Agriculture and Smallholder Farmers

The critical role of Technology Justice in effective adaptation. Agricultural adaptation to climate change is critical for food security and economic development; if it is to be...


From Risk to Resilience: A systems approach to building long-term, adaptive wellbeing for the most vulnerable

This policy brief updates Practical Action's thinking and approach to building resilience for the most vulnerable - From Vulnerability to Resilience (V2R). Using the experiences gained from the...


Transforming Smallholder-Private Sector Relationships to Take Agro-Ecological Community-Based Adaptation to Scale

A poster focusing on the role of the private sector in enhancing climate change adaptation for agroforestry coffee systems in Peru


Why Technology Justice is Critical for the Climate Negotiations: delivering on loss and damage

In Paris in December 2015, national governments as parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will meet to negotiate a new climate agreement. One of the catalysts...


COP22 blogs

  • We need the right climate action
    It seems likely that in the next few days President Trump will withdraw the US from the Paris Agreement. I’m not a climate scientist, but the vast majority of the scientific community is of one mind, that climate change is undeniable.  From own experience of working in Africa and Asia for over thirty years, and talking with many people who live there, the climate is changing.  Extreme events such as droughts, and floods always affect the poorest the most, which […]
  • Now we have ratified the Paris Agreement what next?
    Today, the UK ratified the Paris climate agreement[1]. This means that we join a group of over 110 countries that have so far ratified a global agreement in record time, less than one year since its inception[2]. Last week on the 14th November, the Prime Minister, made a call. She said “Britain has ‘historic chance’ to give leadership to world”[3] Today, in Marrakesh, the climate change negotiations enter their final day, with the negotiations having been laboured unlike in Paris […]
  • Agriculture – a global win-win but, sadly, a ‘no-win’ at COP22
    Agriculture: everywhere, yet nowhere As an agriculturalist following the climate change negotiations (the ‘Conference of Parties’ or annual COPs) I used to think that agriculture was the most ‘not talked about’ topic. It was implicit everywhere, but nowhere in the text. Until, with great relief, food security was highlighted in the Paris Agreement. Recognizing the fundamental priority of safeguarding food security and ending hunger, and the particular vulnerabilities of food production systems to the adverse impacts of climate change However, […]
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