Practical Action conducts research into the energy needs of displaced people, collaborates with a range of partners to deliver an innovative programme of work to meet these needs, and advocates for the sorts of technological solutions and policy interventions that will help deliver safe and sustainable energy access in times of emergency and beyond.
Energy in emergencies
Refugees are among the world's most vulnerable groups. The number of displaced people now exceeds 65 million globally, and, in times of emergency, these people are often left without access to modern energy services. This means that many people live without heating, clean cooking solutions, and electricity; finding solutions by whatever means possible, including collecting firewood and using old batteries. This is despite the fact that sustainable, affordable household energy products are increasingly available worldwide. Unfortunately, these products are often not accessible in refugee camps, where they could help make people's lives significantly less challenging.
Sustainable Humanitarian Energy Services: Inclusive participation, lessons learnt, and paths forward
In this paper, we explore how best practices and lessons from other development sectors can inform the delivery of energy in humanitarian settings.We suggest that energy service programmes in refugee camps can be more successful if organizations implement participatory, bottom-up, and market-based approaches. We highlight seven mechanisms and examples of best practice that implementers can adopt while responding to the energy needs of refugees.
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Opportunities for innovation and scale-up
The role of sustainable sources in providing energy services for refugees is a critical area for innovation and scale-up; whether through solar street lights, solar lanterns, or improved cookstoves. However, while the focus within refugee camps is often on solar energy, there are increasing opportunities for the use of: biomass and biogas, wind generators, micro-hydro, geothermal, LPG, and waste recycling. Similarly, renewable mini-grids and hybrid systems are increasingly proposed as solutions that can be supplied quickly and efficiently in humanitarian settings.
There is an urgent needs for multi-year humanitarian planning that addresses the long-term energy service needs of vulnerable people. To this end, Practical Action is delivering innovative research to understand the extent of the problem, identify challenges, and propose potential solutions.
Practical Action's role
Practical Action works with the humanitarian sector to enable positive collaboration between emergency responders and the energy for development community. Our portfolio of work brings together technical energy innovations, refugee community participation, and interactive humanitarian research. Our projects focus on understanding:
- How refugees use energy and what value they place on energy in their daily lives;
- What technologies and alternative business models are suitable for refugees and displaced populations;
- How energy provision has the potential to improve social cohesion with host-country communities;
- How energy is connected to business and labour ecosystems, and how benefits within communities are distributed;
- How the potentially challenging issues of technology use, political commitments, actors in the supply chain, and beneficiaries in the production and trade of wood and charcoal exist within the humanitarian space.
If you would like to know more about our ambitions and activities around energy in emergency contexts, please contact Sarah Rosenberg-Jansen, Head of Humanitarian Energy on Sarah.Rosenberg-Jansen@practicalaction.org.uk
All statistics, facts and figures are taken from MEI publication Heat, Light and Power for Refugees: Saving Lives, Reducing Costs
- Our projects
- Humanitarian energy facts and figures
Moving Energy Initiative +Practical Action is working with Energy4Impact, Chatham House, UNHCR and the Norwegian Refugee Council on the Moving Energy Initiative (MEI), an innovative project that seeks to meet the energy needs of displaced people in a safe, sustainable manner. We are working with humanitarian agencies and donors to change policies and practices based on evidence from practical projects. We engage with the private sector to design and implement innovative market-based solutions in refugee camps. MEI is also developing evidence through original research and the demonstration of new approaches tried and tested in camps and host communities. Finally, to improve energy access among both refugee and hosting community we cooperate with host governments and national NGOs. Practical Action is currently leading the MEI programme to unlock energy access markets in the Sahel region of Burkina Faso and producing the first report unveiling actual energy needs of refugees. Read More
Energy and Forced Displacement Project +Practical Action and the University of Edinburgh are collaborating on a project exploring 'Energy and Forced Displacement: a qualitative approach to light, heat and power in refugee camps', in Burkina Faso and Kenya. In partnership with the MEI and UNHCR, this project focusses on how to deploy and implement appropriate sustainable energy solutions for heating, cooking, lighting,water and sanitation, communication and other purposes in refugee camps. It aims to improve access to sustainable energy for displaced persons' domestic and commercial purposes, and safe, reliable, secure, and more efficient energy solutions for the administrative and public service facilities. The project will inform and influence the sustainable energy policies, priorities and operations of donors, host governments, and national and international organisations.
Humanitarian Energy for Displaced Populations in Camps and Informal Settlements (HELP) +Practical Action is working with a multi-sectorial consortium led by Coventry University and the University of Oxford, to provide original research on energy for displaced populations. The consortium also includes Scene Connect, and ICT-focussed social enterprise consultancy. The project aims to implement safe and sustainable energy solutions for lighting, electrification, cooking, heating and cooling, and water and sanitation that promotes development and improves wellbeing in displaced communities; as well as the associated ICT-based business processes that enable replication and scalability. The role of digital infrastructure will also be explored and potentially developed, to provide the private sector the assurance it requires to enter this market which has traditionally been the domain of humanitarian actors. The project is undertaking research in Rwanda and Nepal over the next three years to bring innovative, demand-led technologies to refugee communities in these countries.
Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis Toolkit (EMMA) +Practical Action worked with Oxfam, the International Rescue Committee (IRC), and InterAction to develop a market assessment toolkit for use in rapid-onset humanitarian emergencies. The EMMA toolkit is widely used by humanitarian agencies such as the Red Cross, IRC and Oxfam. Read More
Carbon Clear project +In partnership with Carbon Clear, Practical Action developed and implemented a Low Smoke Stoves project in Elfasher, Darfur, Sudan. The key objectives were to improve the livelihoods of poor families and reduce energy poverty, facilitating a switch from wood and charcoal to LPG, a cleaner and more cost-effective energy source, for cooking purposes and to reduce indoor air pollution; thereby improving the health and quality of life of women and children. The project achieved these objectives by providing communications and technical assistance to local organisations and individual households, and by establishing a revolving fund with a target of financing the purchase of 10,000 LPG stoves and fuel canisters by households throughout the funding period and beyond. As a result, an estimated 1,358 LPG sets were distributed to poor households for cooking purposes. The project has also been recognised by the UNFCCC, because of the benefits provided to poor communities and its contribution to climate change mitigation and adaptation. It is the first registered carbon credit project in Sudan and the first to be developed in a conflict zone. Read More
Displaced people are energy poor +Over 89% of people living in camps have no access to electricity and 80% rely on firewood for cooking. 61% of households in Dadaab in Kenya, the world’s largest refugee settlement, rely on no more than a torch for lighting. Households in the Goudoubo camp in Burkina Faso need over 100 kilos of firewood per month for cooking alone. They receive only 12 and must buy or gather the rest.
The cost of energy is high for displaced people +The average displaced household will spend at least $200 per year on fuel, which amounts to $2.1 billion each year worldwide. Households in Dadaab spend 24% of their overall household income on firewood, or $6.2 million, each year. In 2011, UK households spent 4% of their income on energy. In 2014-15, the electricity bill to the UNHCR for the Zaatari camp in Jordan was $8.7 million, which led the agency to cut improvised connections for refugee households and businesses.
The health and safety toll of energy poverty is alarmingly high +Each year it is likely that some 20,000 displaced people die prematurely due to the pollution from indoor fires for cooking. In Uganda, 44% of refugee households admitted to skipping meals because they did not have enough fuel to cook with.
Sustainable solutions are within reach +Using the best available green technologies for households could save lives, reduce Co2 emissions by 11.38 million tons per year and radically improve living standards.