Urban Services


FSM innovation Tackling the Second-Generation Sanitation Challenge at Scale: Business Solutions for Inclusive Faecal Sludge Management in Bangladesh

Globally, Bangladesh stands out as a country that has made remarkable progress in eliminating the scourge of open defecation. However, this success has created a ‘second-generation’ sanitation challenge of how to deal safely with the faecal sludge collected from pit latrines and septic tanks. As on-site sanitation solutions develop, the question of sustainable and inclusive faecal sludge...

Noemie de la Brosse; Rosie Renouf; Suman Kanti Nath, Published by Practical Action 2017

Achieving Open Defecation Free Gulariya Municipality: Experiences from a Project of Practical Action and Enpho in Bardiya District, Nepal

This document sets out the steps, process and experiences from a two year, UK Department for International Development funded project, managed by Practical Action, and implemented in partnership with Environmental and Public Health Organisation (ENPHO) to create an open defecation free (ODF) environment in Gulariya Municiaplity in Bardiya District, Nepal. It reflects on the adaptations made to a...

Pasteur, Katharine; Prabhakaran, Preetha; Kar, Kamal, Published by Practical Action 2016

A safer start in life: handwashing and child health in Kisumu, Kenya

In this briefing paper we outline the situation of handwashing and child health in informal settlements in Kisumu, Kenya and how Practical Action and our partners are planning to address it; and what others need to do. We are calling for: • A clearer understanding of the barriers to better hand hygiene among children under five and their carers • Triggering of community action to address...

Lucy Stevens, Published by Practical Action 2017

Preliminary Results of the FSM Business Model in Faridpur, Bangladesh

This case study looks at Practical Action's approaches to tackling the Post-ODF Challenge through Public-Private Partnerships in Faridpur, Bangladesh.

Noemie de La Brosse; Lucy Stevens; Rafiul Islam, Published by Practical Action 2017

Technology Justice and Faecal Sludge Management

Tackling the second-generation sanitation challenge in South Asia. While globally rates of access to improved sanitation remain woefully low, Bangladesh stands out as a country that has made remarkable progress in eliminating the scourge of open defecation. However, across the country’s growing urban centres, this success has created a so-called ‘second-generation’ sanitation challenge of how to...

Noémie de la Brosse; Jonathan Casey; Lucy Stevens, Published by Practical Action 2017

Decentralised and inclusive waste management policy and practices: lessons for the South Asia region

The challenge of waste management is too large to be tackled by either the Local Authorities, or the formal private sector, or the informal sector alone. Partnerships are needed, and we must make more use of decentralised, cost-effective solutions that can reach all the residents of a town: rich and poor.

Practical Action, Published by Practical Action, Bangladesh 2016

Let's Talk Shit!

80 thousand tons - that's the amount of faeces, AKA shit, produced in Bangladesh every single day! And, of these huge amount of human waste, guess the number that's treated each day? Only 1%. Ever wonder what happens to the remaining 99%?  In this TEDx talk, listen to Ms Hasin Jahan recount how Practical Action faced this very challenge, and turned the problem itself into a solution.

Hasin Jahan, Published by Practical Action 2016

TECHNICAL BRIEF participatory planning for inclusive urban governance

Practical Action Bangladesh have implemented a four-year long (2012 - 2016) multi-country (Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka) project named Integrated Urban Development (IUD)-II project, focusing participatory planning for inclusive urban governance. It came as a follow-up of IUD-I project had been implemented from 2006 to 2009. We have worked in Faridpur and Jessore Municipalities with the aim of...

Practical Action, Bangladesh, Published by Practical Action, Bangladesh 2016

Technology and the Future of Work: Experiences of informal waste workers and street vendors in Dhaka, Lima, and Nairobi

The role and importance of technology in informal work opportunities and livelihoods is little understood or explored. Technology can be a great enabler, helping people to do more, better. But it can also threaten livelihoods and work opportunities and drive social inequality. Through a year-long project supported by the Rockefeller Foundation, Practical Action and WIEGO (Women in Informal...

Jonathan Casey, Published by Practical Action Publishing 2016

Technology and the Future of Work

Through a year-long project, Practical Action and WIEGO have explored the technologies, cities, work and systems that influence the disruptive impact of technologies on informal workers. The Technology & Future of Work project explored how the working poor are able to mitigate the negative livelihood impacts of technology disruption, or harness technologies to create new work opportunities in...

Jonathan Casey; Kendra Hughes, Published by Practical Action, United Kingdom 2016

10 things to know: Gender equality and achieving climate goals

This report draws out the headline messages of a research project by Practical Action Consulting (PAC) with the Institute of Development Studies (IDS), commissioned by CDKN, to investigate the potential for climate compatible development to empower people, using case studies from Peru, India and Kenya. As most research into gender and climate change so far has been carried out in rural contexts,...

Sebastian Kratzer; Virginie Le Masson, Published by CDKN 2016

Tapping into Informality: the suitability of MajiVoice as a tool to improve water service delivery and governance in Nairobi’s informal settlements

The promotion of electronic participation, or eParticipation, via mobile phones has grown in popularity within the Global South as a method for providing a platform for previously under-represented clientele to communicate their experiences with public service delivery. MajiVoice, operated by the Nairobi City Water and Sewerage Company Limited (NCWSC), is such a platform. However, the informal...

Megan Douglas, Published by Practical Action 2015

Dhaka’s Unseen Green: An Analysis of the Roles and Opportunities of Informal Waste Pickers

Waste pickers are the men, women, and children all over the world who rely on rubbish for their survival. Operating across dynamic and generally informal networks, waste pickers collect, transport, and separate our discarded materials. Waste pickers are recyclers, entrepreneurs, and a key component of solid waste management systems in many countries - they are also subject to widespread social...

Mary Greene Carenbauer, Published by Practical Action 2015

Understanding Urban Poverty: The Economics of Technology Change in Vending Agricultural Products in Peru.

In seeking to understand urban poverty through the lens of technology change and its impact on informal sectors, this paper discusses the field research carried out on street vendors of agricultural products in urban Peru. The paper reviews the economic theoretical approaches of the diffusion and threshold models in the context of the poor informal workers and their role in agricultural...

Bami Dagu, Published by Practical Action 2015

Technology Mapping in Satkhira

Technology mapping includes demographic information of slums, wellbeing status, water supply and sanitation conditions, primary health and the hygiene situation. After assessing the needs of a slum community, with the support from the community demographic statistics and comparison of the community service levels pre-scribed by Bangladesh government, an index is developed to help advocate...

Mohammed Shariful Islam; Fawzia Farzana, Published by Practical Action 2013

Public Private Partnerships in Decentralised Sanitation Waste Management in Nakuru, Kenya

A presentation on facilitating pro-poor public-private partnerships for sustainable sanitation waste management in Nakuru, Nakuru County, Kenya.

Patrick Mwanzia; Timothy Muriithi Kiogora, Published by Practical Action 2015

Faecal Sludge Management in Bangladesh

In Bangladesh improved sanitation consists largely of latrines and septic tanks. Human waste from these facilities is dumped untreated in waterways or down drains, causing alarming health risks to all. In the Faridpur district of Dhaka, Practical Action is working with the government, pit emptiers the private sector, local development partners and other organisations to install a faecal sludge...

Practical Action Bangladesh, Published by Practical Action 2015

Lessons Learned in Urban Community Led Total Sanitation from Nakuru, Kenya

A presentation for the 38th WEDC Conference on key lessons from Practical Action's Urban CLTS work in Nakuru with the Umanda Trust. It explains how engagement with multiple stakeholders, particularly landlords, is vitally important for success.

Peter Murigi, Published by Practical Action 2015

Faecal Sludge Management in Faridpur, Bangladesh: Scaling up through service level agreements

Improving the situation of faecal sludge management is an urgent issue in all the rapidly growing towns across Bangladesh where there is no sewerage system. Simply improving access to sanitation will not lead to health benefits unless the sludge is safely dealt with. This paper reports on the findings of a situation analysis on FSM in Faridpur Town carried out in 2014. It goes on to outline the...

Lucy Stevens; Rafiul Islam; Alexis Morcrette; Noémie de la Brosse; Abdullah al Mamun, Published by Practical Action 2015

Situation Analysis Report on Faecal Sludge Management in Faridpur Municipality, Bangladesh

A comprehensive situation analysis of Faridpur’s sludge management system and the relationship between key public and private stakeholders. It analyses sludge containment, collection, transportation, disposal and treatment. The study considers consumer satisfaction and attitudes towards service delivery and willingness to pay, and the business environment and opportunities to improve the system...

Practical Action, Published by Practical Action 2014


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